Respiratory system diseases are among the most common reasons for children to consult a doctor and hospitalize in the world and in our country. Respiratory system and lung are directly related to the environment. Therefore, the respiratory system; They are easily affected by many factors such as infections, allergens, weather changes. A healthy child can have an upper respiratory tract infection 5-8 times a year. This frequency decreases as the children get older; However, some children have very frequent respiratory tract infections and following these infections, there may be prolonged cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. Pediatric Chest Diseases specialty is one of the sub-branches in our country above the Pediatric Health and Diseases specialty. The education period is 3 years. The number of experts is very limited in our country, as it is officially recognized as a minor branch for 5-6 years.
What are Pediatric Chest Diseases?
Asthma: It is a chronic or long-term condition that intermittently inflames and narrows the airways in the lungs. Inflammation causes the airways to swell. Asthma causes wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and cough. People with asthma may experience mild to severe symptoms that may occur rarely or every day. When symptoms get worse, it’s called an asthma attack. Asthma affects people of all ages and often begins in childhood.
Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that causes serious damage to the lungs, digestive system, and other organs in the body. Cystic fibrosis affects cells that produce mucus, sweat, and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery. But in people with cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes secretions to be sticky and thick. Rather than acting as a lubricant, the secretions block the tubes, ducts, and passages, especially in the lungs and pancreas.
Bronchiectasis: Bronchiectasis is a long-term condition in which the airways of the lungs are abnormally enlarged, causing excessive mucus buildup that can make the lungs more vulnerable to infection.
Chronic lung diseases: Chronic lung disease (CLD), also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, occurs when the newborn’s lungs are injured. Damaged tissues in the baby’s lungs become inflamed and can break, causing scarring. This scar can make it difficult for the newborn to breathe; In this case, the baby needs oxygen therapy.
Pneumonia: Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. Air sacs may be filled with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing coughing of sputum or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. Various organisms can cause pneumonia, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
Recurrent pneumonia: Recurrent pneumonia is defined as two or (usually) more lower respiratory tract infections, usually accompanied by fever, leukocytosis and purulent sputum production.
Chronic and / or recurrent cough: A cough that lasts eight weeks or longer is called a chronic cough. Even chronic coughs often have a treatable cause. It can be caused by conditions such as postnasal drip or allergies. They only rarely show cancer symptoms or other life-threatening lung conditions.
Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis is a potentially serious infectious disease that mainly affects your lungs. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis spread from one person to another through tiny droplets that are released into the air through coughs and sneezes.
Congenital lung diseases: Congenital lung disorders, also known as cystic lung disease or congenital lung malformations, occur while the baby is still in the mother’s womb. Most congenital lung disorders are discovered during a prenatal ultrasound. About 10 percent of congenital lung diseases are diagnosed at birth, while the other 14 percent are seen at the age of 15.
Immotile cilia: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic condition in which microscopic cells in the respiratory system called cilia do not function normally. Ciliary dysfunction prevents mucus from being cleared from the lungs, paranasal sinuses, and ears. Bacteria and other irritants in the mucosa cause frequent respiratory tract infections.
Sleep apnea syndrome (Sleep disorders): Sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder in which breathing stops and starts repeatedly. Loud snoring and feeling tired even after a full night’s sleep can be signs of sleep apnea.
Interstitial lung diseases: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an umbrella term for a broad group of diseases that cause scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs. Scarring causes stiffness in the lungs and difficulty in breathing.
They are lung problems due to skeletal muscle diseases.